Advertisement

Medicaid Coverage of Medications to Treat Alcohol and Opioid Dependence

Published:April 16, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2015.04.009

      Highlights

      • Utilization controls may preclude appropriate treatment for substance use disorders.
      • Medicaid programs restrict use of medications approved for substance use disorders.
      • Prior authorization requirements often restrict use of buprenorphine–naloxone.

      Abstract

      Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine–naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits.

      Keywords

      1. Introduction

      Substance use disorders are prevalent among Medicaid beneficiaries, affecting about 12% of adults (
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      National expenditures for mental health services and substance abuse treatment, 19862009 (HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4740).
      ). Studies show increasing rates of drug misuse nationwide (
      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Prescription drug overdose in the United States: Fact sheet.
      ), and there has been an increase in opioid prescribing, including Medicaid populations (
      • Desai R.J.
      • Hernandez-Diaz S.
      • Bateman B.T.
      • Huybrechts K.F.
      Increase in prescription opioid use during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women.
      ,
      • Epstein R.A.
      • Bobo W.V.
      • Martin P.R.
      • Morrow J.A.
      • Wang W.
      • Chandrasekhar R.
      • et al.
      Increasing pregnancy-related use of prescribed opioid analgesics.
      ). Some reports reveal overdose death rates that are much higher among Medicaid enrollees compared with individuals covered by other payers (
      • Kuehn B.M.
      Payers probe ways to help curb risky prescribing.
      ), yet only 4.4% of Medicaid beneficiaries receive substance use disorder treatment in any given year (
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      National expenditures for mental health services and substance abuse treatment, 19862009 (HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4740).
      ). Medicaid programs allocate approximately 1.4% of their total expenditures to treating substance use disorders (
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      Behavioral health treatment needs assessment toolkit for states (HHS Publication No. SMA13-4757).
      ).
      The low rates of treatment for substance use disorders and associated cost savings mask the cost impact of substance use disorders and the return on investment from providing treatment. For example, substance use disorder diagnoses are indicated in 2 of the top 10 reasons for Medicaid hospital readmissions (
      • Jiang H.J.
      Hospital readmissions for Medicaid patients: An analysis using multistate databases.
      ). Studies have shown that substance use disorder treatment can pay for itself by reducing the medical consequences of substance use such as drug overdoses, HIV, and hepatitis C (
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      Cost offset of treatment services (fact sheet). (HHS Publication No. SMA-09-4441).
      ,
      • Wickizer T.M.
      • Mancuso D.
      • Huber A.
      Evaluation of an innovative Medicaid health policy initiative to expand substance abuse treatment in Washington State.
      ). Several medications are effective in treating opioid and alcohol dependence. The use of these medications in combination with behavioral therapies can help reestablish normal brain functioning, reduce cravings, and prevent relapse (
      • National Institute on Drug Abuse
      DrugFacts: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.
      ).
      There currently are no medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat cannabis, cocaine, or methamphetamine dependence. The three FDA-approved medications for opioid dependence are naltrexone, buprenorphine, and methadone. Naltrexone is available in oral and extended-release injectable forms. Buprenorphine is available in oral and sublingual forms alone and combined with naloxone (an opioid antagonist added to deter misuse). Buprenorphine–Naloxone is available in oral and sublingual forms. There are three FDA-approved medications for treating alcohol use disorders: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate.
      At the time of writing, all of the medications available to treat alcohol and opioid dependence are available in generic form except extended release naltrexone (Vivitrol). The ability of Medicaid beneficiaries to obtain these medications is influenced by whether and how medications are included under Medicaid programs' prescription drug benefits, such as whether they are included on a Medicaid program's preferred drug list (PDL) (
      • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      Medicaid coverage and financing of medications to treat alcohol and opioid use disorders (HHS Publication No. SMA-14-4854).
      ).
      Because these medications are critically important for treating substance use disorders, we sought to characterize their coverage within individual state Medicaid programs.

      2. Material and methods

      2.1 Data

      We used various data sources to collect information on coverage. We retrieved the most recent Medicaid pharmacy documents from Medicaid and state government Websites and examined them for information about coverage. If the Medicaid pharmacy documents did not have information on alcohol or opioid dependence medications, we used the 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization data to draw inferences about coverage (
      • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
      Medicaid state drug utilization data.
      ). These data include a count of the number of medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders that are paid by Medicaid during one quarter for each year. If the Medicaid programs paid for an alcohol or opioid use disorder medication during the reported quarter of either 2011 or 2012, then we classified the state as covering the drug on their PDL. A third data source was a 2013 report sponsored by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (
      • American Society of Addiction Medicine
      Advancing access to addiction medications: Implications for opioid addiction treatment.
      ). ASAM surveyed Medicaid directors about coverage of medications for opioid dependence. We used the results of this survey as the main source for determining Medicaid coverage of methadone for opioid dependence, as opposed to coverage as an analgesic. Thus, in ascertaining coverage by Medicaid programs, we looked at medications on the PDL designated for treatment of opioid or alcohol dependence and at whether Medicaid reimburses for methadone dispensed at opioid treatment programs.

      2.2 Data analysis

      We calculated descriptive statistics on the availability of medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders on Medicaid PDLs in 50 states and the District of Columbia. We also examined Medicaid benefit design elements (prior authorization, behavioral therapy requirement, quantity limits, lifetime treatment limits, step therapy) for these medications.

      3. Results

      Fig. 1 lists medications used to treat alcohol and opioid use disorders (including methadone dispensed for opioid addiction treatment) and shows their inclusion on PDLs for Medicaid programs in 50 states and the District of Columbia. If a state does not include a medication on the PDL, the prescriber must obtain permission from the member's pharmacy benefit plan before the product can be prescribed; otherwise, the medication is not covered. All 51 Medicaid programs included at least one of the medications listed in the figure, but only 13 state Medicaid programs (Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin) included all of the medications. All 51 Medicaid programs included disulfiram and oral naltrexone, and 50 programs included combined buprenorphine–naloxone (inclusion by the remaining program was unknown). The most commonly excluded medications were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs).
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Fig. 1Availability of medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders on Medicaid Preferred Drug Lists (PDLs) for 50 states and the District of Columbia, 2011–2013. Sources.
      • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
      Medicaid state drug utilization data.
      Medicaid state drug utilization data, and the
      • American Society of Addiction Medicine
      Advancing access to addiction medications: Implications for opioid addiction treatment.
      .
      Even if a drug is included on a PDL, states may still impose specific utilization controls. Table 1 describes additional characteristics of each Medicaid program's prescription drug benefits, as discussed below.
      Table 1Medicaid benefit design elements for medications used to treat alcohol and opioid dependence among Medicaid programs in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, 2011–2013.
      MedicationPrior authorization requiredBehavioral therapy requiredQuantity limits
      Quantity limits define the maximum quantity of medication that is covered for one prescription or copayment. Typically, a prescription is for a 30-day supply or, in the case of mail-order, a 90-day supply. Lifetime treatment limits are not included.
      Lifetime treatment limits
      Lifetime limits are limits on the total length of time that that an individual can receive medications while enrolled in Medicaid.
      Step therapy used
      Disulfiram50300
      Acamprosate51200
      Naltrexone — oral121300
      Naltrexone — injectable1215306
      Methadone13151000
      Buprenorphine–Naloxone482134110
      Sources.
      • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
      Medicaid state drug utilization data.
      Medicaid state drug utilization data, and the
      • American Society of Addiction Medicine
      Advancing access to addiction medications: Implications for opioid addiction treatment.
      .
      a Quantity limits define the maximum quantity of medication that is covered for one prescription or copayment. Typically, a prescription is for a 30-day supply or, in the case of mail-order, a 90-day supply. Lifetime treatment limits are not included.
      b Lifetime limits are limits on the total length of time that that an individual can receive medications while enrolled in Medicaid.

      3.1 Prior authorization

      Prior authorization requires that a prescriber obtain permission from the pharmacy benefit plan prior to prescribing a product to a member. Prior authorization was required by 48 of the 51 programs (94%) for buprenorphine–naloxone, 13 programs (25%) for methadone, 12 programs (24%) for naltrexone, and 5 programs (10%) for acamprosate and disulfiram. Thus, for example, although buprenorphine–naloxone was on the PDL of 50 states, 48 of those states also imposed prior authorization requirements.

      3.2 Behavioral therapy

      A number of states also required evidence that the patient had a referral to or attended behavioral therapy to be able to fill a prescription. These requirements applied almost exclusively to medications for opioid use disorders. Documentation of behavioral therapy was required by 21 programs (41%) for buprenorphine–naloxone and 15 programs (29%) for methadone and injectable extended-release naltrexone. Only 1 program required behavioral therapy for oral naltrexone and acamprosate, and no program required behavioral therapy for disulfiram.

      3.3 Quantity limits

      Quantity limits define the maximum quantity of medication that will be reimbursed under the prescription drug benefit for one prescription or copayment (e.g., 30 days, 90 days for mail order). Quantity limits were used by 34 programs (67%) for buprenorphine–naloxone, 10 programs (20%) for methadone, and less than 10% of programs for extended release naltrexone, oral naltrexone, disulfiram, and acamprosate.

      3.4 Lifetime treatment limits

      In addition to quantity limits, 11 Medicaid programs (22%) have established lifetime treatment limits specifically for buprenorphine–naloxone. Four programs (District of Columbia, Illinois, Michigan, and Washington) have a 1-year limit, six programs (Arkansas, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Virginia, and Wyoming) have a 2-year limit, and one program (Utah) has a 3-year limit.

      3.5 Step therapy

      Step therapy is a benefit design requiring patients to try a first-line treatment such as a generic or alternative medication before they can receive a second-line treatment such as a brand medication. Step therapy was used only for injectable extended-release naltrexone, which does not have a generic equivalent. Medicaid programs in 6 states (Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, Oregon, and Vermont) required step therapy for this medication.

      4. Discussion

      Coverage restrictions on the use of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence differ across states and take a variety of forms. To some extent, this disparity in state policies may reflect conflicting concerns, such as the need to stem the increasing use and misuse of opioids balanced against the desire to prevent diversion and misuse of treatment medications. Indeed, third-party payers design pharmaceutical benefits with multiple goals in mind: encouraging cost savings, deterring inappropriate use, and ensuring ease of access to appropriate treatments. Given the growing need for treatment of substance use disorders, however, now may be an important time for Medicaid programs to re-evaluate whether their prescription benefits for dependence medications are designed appropriately to meet these goals. In particular, the following features may warrant evaluation.

      4.1 Reassess preferred drug lists

      Given the evidence on the effectiveness of medications for treating addiction to opioids and alcohol and the need for treatment, states should re-examine their rationale for excluding dependence medications such as acamprosate, extended-release naltrexone, and methadone from their PDLs. Extended-release naltrexone is not yet available in generic form, so Medicaid programs may choose to substitute similar generic medications: acamprosate, oral naltrexone, or disulfiram. However, this may lead to missed opportunities for effective treatment and ultimate cost savings if the extended-release version is most appropriate for the patient (
      • Hartung D.
      • McCarty D.
      • Fu R.
      • Wiest K.
      • Chalk M.
      • Gastfriend D.R.
      Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: A meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies.
      ,
      • Zarkin G.A.
      • Bray J.W.
      • Aldridge A.
      • Mills M.
      • Cisler R.A.
      • Couper D.
      • et al.
      The effect of alcohol treatment on social costs of alcohol dependence: Results from the COMBINE study.
      ). Methadone is a relatively inexpensive medication that has been shown to be an effective treatment (
      • Barnett P.G.
      • Hui S.S.
      The cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance.
      ). It reduces heroin use and is well tolerated; at low doses it is better than buprenorphine for retaining people in maintenance treatment and suppressing heroin use and, regardless of dose, better than drug-free alternatives (
      • Mattick R.B.
      • Breen C.
      • Kimber J.
      • Davoli M.
      Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence (review).
      ,
      • Mattick R.B.
      • Breen C.
      • Kimber J.
      • Davoli M.
      Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence (review).
      ).

      4.2 Re-evaluate lifetime limits

      States should re-evaluate lifetime limits on the use of buprenorphine–naloxone. Such limits on addiction medications appear to be inconsistent with best practices. Opioid addiction is considered a chronic disease; individuals remain at risk for relapse with potentially devastating consequences even after long periods of abstinence (
      • McLellan A.T.
      • Lewis D.C.
      • O’Brien C.P.
      • Kleber H.D.
      Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation.
      ). Thus limiting buprenorphine treatment after a period of between 1 and 3 years is not consistent with medical evidence or likely to be cost-effective (
      • Clark R.E.
      • Baxter J.D.
      Responses of state Medicaid programs to buprenorphine diversion: Doing more harm than good?.
      ,
      • Clark R.E.
      • Samnaliev M.
      • Baxter J.D.
      • Leung G.Y.
      The evidence doesn’t justify steps by state Medicaid programs to restrict opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine.
      ). Moreover, it is possible that these lifetime limits may violate requirements of parity (
      Final Rules under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; Technical amendment to external review for multi-state plan program, 78 Fed. Reg. 68239-68296.
      ) for mental and substance use disorder treatment if they are more onerous than restrictions placed on comparable treatments for other illnesses.

      4.3 Reassess prior authorization and quantity limitations

      Prior authorization can be useful for ensuring that lower cost options are tried before more expensive options and that medications are used appropriately. There is, however, a delicate balance between keeping costs low and providing appropriate access to treatment. Depending upon the program design and requirements for prior authorization, some state policies may cause administrative burdens that reduce access to medications. States may need to examine the types of documentation they require (e.g., documentation of access to behavioral health treatment versus documentation of behavioral treatment attendance) to determine how these requirements affect access to medications as well as treatment continuity.
      Research on the use of prior authorization with psychiatric medications—including antipsychotics, antidepressants, and medications to treat bipolar disorder—has revealed that although prior authorization can reduce medication expenditures, it may also have the unintended consequence of creating barriers to access and reducing use of the medication (
      • Lu C.Y.
      • Soumerai S.B.
      • Ross-Degnan D.
      • Zhang F.
      • Adams A.S.
      Unintended impacts of a Medicaid prior authorization policy on access to medications for bipolar illness.
      ,
      • Mark T.L.
      • Gibson T.M.
      • McGuigan K.
      • Chu B.C.
      The effects of antidepressant step therapy protocols on pharmaceutical and medical utilization and expenditures.
      ,
      • Vogt W.B.
      • Joyce G.
      • Xia J.
      • Riad D.
      • Wan G.
      • Goldman D.
      Medicaid cost control measures aimed at second-generation antipsychotics led to less use of all antipsychotics.
      ). Quantity or dosage limitations can impede effective treatment and run counter to the current scientific literature (
      • Greenwald M.K.
      • Comer S.D.
      • Fiellin D.A.
      Buprenorphine maintenance and mu-opioid receptor availability in the treatment of opioid use disorder: Implications for clinical use and policy.
      ).
      The Massachusetts Medicaid program offers one possible solution for drugs used to treat opioid addiction. This program requires more frequent prior authorization for higher doses of buprenorphine and combined buprenorphine–naloxone. That is, doses above 32 mg/day require prior approval every 30 days, doses between 25 and 32 mg/day require authorization every 90 days, doses between 17 and 24 mg/day require authorization every 180 days, and doses 16 mg/day or less do not require authorization. Investigation into the effects of this program revealed that requiring more frequent prior authorization for higher doses of medication reduces the percentage of patients who use higher doses than FDA-approved dose ranges (for buprenorphine–naloxone 24/6 mg daily) while maintaining access to treatment (
      • Clark R.E.
      • Baxter J.D.
      • Barton B.A.
      • Aweh G.
      • O’Connell E.
      • Fisher W.H.
      The impact of prior authorization on buprenorphine dose, relapse rates, and cost for Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries with opioid dependence.
      ). The Massachusetts program is more flexible than rigid tapering schedules in other states, and it does not include a lifetime cap. It may be a model for states wishing to adjust their prior authorization policies to ensure continuous treatment of opioid addiction while maintaining lower costs.

      4.4 Promote intra- and interagency coordination

      In addition to addressing these specific issues pertaining to formulary designs, Medicaid programs may want to consider more globally how they are creating their formularies and whether their benefits are optimal for meeting the significant needs of people with substance use disorders. As noted in a recent ASAM report, lack of coordination between various parts of the Medicaid program and other agencies within state governments can result in benefits working at cross-purposes (
      • American Society of Addiction Medicine
      Advancing access to addiction medications: Implications for opioid addiction treatment.
      ). For example, pharmacy and therapeutics committees that decide on formularies may not have data on the prevalence of opioid addiction in a state or enough information on the chronic nature of substance use disorders. These committees also may focus primarily on pharmacy costs rather than total health care costs, thereby undervaluing the benefits of medication-assisted treatment. Single state agencies may not be coordinating with Medicaid agencies to ensure that an adequate number and mix of providers are available to prescribe the medications included on the PDLs. To these ends, Medicaid programs also may want to coordinate with local public health agencies and health care provider and clinician organizations.

      4.5 Consider innovative state models

      Several states have analyzed barriers to treatment of opioid dependence. They responded to the results by formulating innovative treatment approaches that are both outcome-effective and cost-effective. The Baltimore Buprenorphine Initiative is funded by the Maryland Alcohol and Drug Abuse Administration, Baltimore City, and private foundations (
      • Baltimore Buprenorphine Initiative
      Buprenorphine medication helps people recover from heroin and other opioid use disorders.
      ). This program reduced opioid treatment waitlists and heroin overdose deaths by using a team of health care workers to (1) support patients while in short-term treatment at a substance use disorder facility, (2) help them access Medicaid coverage, and (3) refer them to outpatient providers for their continuing care (
      • Schwartz R.P.
      • Gryczynski J.
      • O’Grady K.E.
      • Sharfstein J.M.
      • Warren G.
      • Olsen Y.
      • et al.
      Opioid agonist treatments and heroin overdose deaths in Baltimore, Maryland, 1995-2009.
      ).
      In response to long waitlists for outpatient buprenorphine treatment and with funding from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Massachusetts has implemented a nurse management program in which the nurse handles much of the initial assessment, referral to treatment, adherence monitoring, paperwork, and communication with prescribing physicians, addiction counselors, and pharmacists. With a nurse taking on these responsibilities, physicians with waivers to prescribe buprenorphine can manage more patients (
      • Alford D.P.
      • LaBelle C.T.
      • Kretsch N.
      • Bergeron A.
      • Winter M.
      • Botticelli M.
      • et al.
      Collaborative care of opioid-addicted patients in primary care using buprenorphine: Five-year experience.
      ).
      To improve access to opioid use disorder treatment and as part of a Medicaid demonstration project funded under Affordable Care Act Section 2703 (
      • National Academy for State Health Policy
      Vermont – Medical homes.
      ), Vermont developed a regional comprehensive substance use disorder treatment infrastructure known as a Hub and Spoke system. Hubs are centers that provide comprehensive services to Vermont residents with opioid addiction for a given geographic area. Spokes are teams of providers who offer treatment, support, counseling, and case management services for individuals who are less clinically complex.
      These innovative models offer ideas and inspiration for other states that are looking for cost-effective ways to reduce alcohol and opioid dependence. New approaches, coupled with modifications to PDLs and benefit designs, offer opportunities for Medicaid programs to enhance treatment options and promote successful outcomes in their efforts to reduce alcohol and opioid addiction.

      4.6 Limitations

      Most of the limitations of this study are related to our sources of information. Information on which medications were included in each Medicaid program's PDL, and the requirements for accessing those medications (e.g., prior authorization) often were difficult to obtain. In a few instances we were unable to determine whether a medication was included in the PDL. When two different data sources provided conflicting information on whether the medication was included in the PDL or, in the case of methadone, was covered as dispensed at opioid addiction treatment programs, we assumed that it was included. This may have led to an upward bias in the number of programs described as including particular medications in their PDLs. However, because medication costs are often incorporated into an all-inclusive rate for methadone maintenance, which typically is indicated by a service code in outpatient rather than pharmacy claims, the bias in fact may be downward. Covered medications and characteristics of state Medicaid programs described in this article are subject to change; these data were accurate as of 2013. Finally, some heterogeneity across state programs may not be reflected in our data. For example, some states have multiple managed care organizations that may not have uniform policies.

      Acknowledgments

      This work was funded through a contract from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The manuscript does not necessarily reflect the opinion of SAMHSA or the Department of Health and Human Services. We would like to acknowledge Lauren Hughey, Hollis Lin, and Peggy O'Brien for analytic support, Paige Jackson and Linda Lee for editorial support, and Mitchell Berger for his review of earlier versions of the manuscript.

      References

        • Alford D.P.
        • LaBelle C.T.
        • Kretsch N.
        • Bergeron A.
        • Winter M.
        • Botticelli M.
        • et al.
        Collaborative care of opioid-addicted patients in primary care using buprenorphine: Five-year experience.
        Archives of Internal Medicine. 2011; 171: 425-431
        • American Society of Addiction Medicine
        Advancing access to addiction medications: Implications for opioid addiction treatment.
        2013 (Retrieved from http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/advocacy/aaam_implications-for-opioid-addiction-treatment_final)
        • Baltimore Buprenorphine Initiative
        Buprenorphine medication helps people recover from heroin and other opioid use disorders.
        (Retrieved from)
        • Barnett P.G.
        • Hui S.S.
        The cost-effectiveness of methadone maintenance.
        Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine. 2000; 67: 365-374
        • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        Prescription drug overdose in the United States: Fact sheet.
        2014 (Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/overdose/facts.html)
        • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
        Medicaid state drug utilization data.
        2011 and 2012 (Retrieved from http://www.resdac.org/cms-data/files/medicaid-state-drug-utilization)
        • Clark R.E.
        • Baxter J.D.
        Responses of state Medicaid programs to buprenorphine diversion: Doing more harm than good?.
        JAMA Internal Medicine. 2013; 173: 1571-1572
        • Clark R.E.
        • Baxter J.D.
        • Barton B.A.
        • Aweh G.
        • O’Connell E.
        • Fisher W.H.
        The impact of prior authorization on buprenorphine dose, relapse rates, and cost for Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries with opioid dependence.
        Health Services Research. 2014; 49: 1964-1979
        • Clark R.E.
        • Samnaliev M.
        • Baxter J.D.
        • Leung G.Y.
        The evidence doesn’t justify steps by state Medicaid programs to restrict opioid addiction treatment with buprenorphine.
        Health Affairs (Millwood). 2011; 30: 1425-1433
        • Desai R.J.
        • Hernandez-Diaz S.
        • Bateman B.T.
        • Huybrechts K.F.
        Increase in prescription opioid use during pregnancy among Medicaid-enrolled women.
        Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2014; 123: 997-1002
        • Epstein R.A.
        • Bobo W.V.
        • Martin P.R.
        • Morrow J.A.
        • Wang W.
        • Chandrasekhar R.
        • et al.
        Increasing pregnancy-related use of prescribed opioid analgesics.
        Annals of Epidemiology. 2013; 23: 498-503
      1. Final Rules under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; Technical amendment to external review for multi-state plan program, 78 Fed. Reg. 68239-68296.
        2013 (Retrieved from https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2013/11/13/2013-27086/final-rules-under-the-paul-wellstone-and-pete-domenici-mental-health-parity-and-addiction-equity-act)
        • Greenwald M.K.
        • Comer S.D.
        • Fiellin D.A.
        Buprenorphine maintenance and mu-opioid receptor availability in the treatment of opioid use disorder: Implications for clinical use and policy.
        Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2014; 144: 1-11
        • Hartung D.
        • McCarty D.
        • Fu R.
        • Wiest K.
        • Chalk M.
        • Gastfriend D.R.
        Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: A meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies.
        Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2014; 47: 113-121
        • Jiang H.J.
        Hospital readmissions for Medicaid patients: An analysis using multistate databases.
        in: Poster session presented at the annual conference of the Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality, Bethesda, MD. 2010
        • Kuehn B.M.
        Payers probe ways to help curb risky prescribing.
        JAMA. 2014; 311: 1097-1098
        • Lu C.Y.
        • Soumerai S.B.
        • Ross-Degnan D.
        • Zhang F.
        • Adams A.S.
        Unintended impacts of a Medicaid prior authorization policy on access to medications for bipolar illness.
        Medical Care. 2010; 48: 4-9
        • Mark T.L.
        • Gibson T.M.
        • McGuigan K.
        • Chu B.C.
        The effects of antidepressant step therapy protocols on pharmaceutical and medical utilization and expenditures.
        American Journal of Psychiatry. 2010; 167: 1202-1209
        • Mattick R.B.
        • Breen C.
        • Kimber J.
        • Davoli M.
        Methadone maintenance therapy versus no opioid replacement therapy for opioid dependence (review).
        Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009; 3: CD002209https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002209.pub2
        • Mattick R.B.
        • Breen C.
        • Kimber J.
        • Davoli M.
        Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence (review).
        Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014; 2: CD002207https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002207.pub4
        • McLellan A.T.
        • Lewis D.C.
        • O’Brien C.P.
        • Kleber H.D.
        Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcomes evaluation.
        JAMA. 2000; 284: 1689-1695
        • National Academy for State Health Policy
        Vermont – Medical homes.
        2014 (Retrieved from http://www.nashp.org/med-home-states/vermont)
        • National Institute on Drug Abuse
        DrugFacts: Treatment approaches for drug addiction.
        2009 (Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction)
        • Schwartz R.P.
        • Gryczynski J.
        • O’Grady K.E.
        • Sharfstein J.M.
        • Warren G.
        • Olsen Y.
        • et al.
        Opioid agonist treatments and heroin overdose deaths in Baltimore, Maryland, 1995-2009.
        American Journal of Public Health. 2013; 103: 917-922
        • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
        Cost offset of treatment services (fact sheet). (HHS Publication No. SMA-09-4441).
        2009 (Rockville, MD; Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Cost-Offset-of-Treatment-Services-Fact-Sheet-/SMA09-4441)
        • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
        Behavioral health treatment needs assessment toolkit for states (HHS Publication No. SMA13-4757).
        2013 (Rockville, MD; Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Behavioral-Health-Treatment-Needs-Assessment-Toolkit-for-States/SMA13-4757)
        • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
        National expenditures for mental health services and substance abuse treatment, 19862009 (HHS Publication No. SMA-13-4740).
        2013 (Rockville, MD; Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/National-Expenditures-for-Mental-Health-Services-and-Substance-Abuse-Treatment-1986-2005/SMA10-4612)
        • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
        Medicaid coverage and financing of medications to treat alcohol and opioid use disorders (HHS Publication No. SMA-14-4854).
        2014 (Rockville, MD; Retrieved from http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Medicaid-Coverage-and-Financing-of-Medications-to-Treat-Alcohol-and-Opioid-Use-Disorders/SMA14-4854)
        • Vogt W.B.
        • Joyce G.
        • Xia J.
        • Riad D.
        • Wan G.
        • Goldman D.
        Medicaid cost control measures aimed at second-generation antipsychotics led to less use of all antipsychotics.
        Health Affairs (Millwood). 2011; 30: 2346-2354
        • Wickizer T.M.
        • Mancuso D.
        • Huber A.
        Evaluation of an innovative Medicaid health policy initiative to expand substance abuse treatment in Washington State.
        Medical Care Research and Review. 2012; 69: 540-559
        • Zarkin G.A.
        • Bray J.W.
        • Aldridge A.
        • Mills M.
        • Cisler R.A.
        • Couper D.
        • et al.
        The effect of alcohol treatment on social costs of alcohol dependence: Results from the COMBINE study.
        Medical Care. 2010; 48: 396-401